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Display, Record, Play, Grade and Analyze Heart Sounds

Peer Reviewed Articles Discussing Cardiac Auscultation, Heart Murmurs,
Clinical Diagnosis using Acoustic Heart Sound Recording, Phonocardiology
and Phonocardiography, Computer-Aided Auscultation, Properties of the
Heart Sounds

Collection of articles devoted to processing heart sounds using advanced computational methods-
compiled by Laura Malave

Download new software flyer - eflyer1.pdf
Download new systolic murmur characterization system examples


Tavel ME. Clinical Phonocardiography and External Pulse Recording. 4th ed. Chicago, Ill: Yearbook Medical Publishers; 1985:1.

Anthony Don Michael. Auscultation of the Heart:A Cardiophonetic Approach, 1997, McGraw-Hill,
p. 404


M. Tavel, Circulation. 2006;113:1255-1259.
Cardiac Auscultation - Glorious Past and it does have a future

Assessment of Severity of Aortic Stenosis Through Time-Frequency Analysis of Murmur
Dosik Kim, Morton E. Tavel, Chest,

Usefulness of a New Sound Spectral Averaging Technique to Distinguish an Innocent Systolic Murmur
from That of Aortic Stenosis
, Am J. Cardiology 2005; 95:902-904

Echocardiography or Auscultation
Clarence Shub, Canadian Family Physician, V. 49, Feb 2003, 163-167

Third Heart Sound Revisited,
A Correlation with N-Terminal Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Echocardiography to Detect Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Varun S Narain, Aniket Puri, Harpreeet S Gilhotra, PA Sadiq, Sanjay Mehrotra,
Sudhanshu K Dwivedi, Ram K Saran, Vijay K Puri,
Indian Heart Journal, Jan/Feb 2005, Vol. 57, No 1

A novel multimedia tool to improve bedside teaching of cardiac auscultation, Postgrad Med J 2004;80:355-357
A. Woywodt, A Herrmann, JT Kielstein, H Haller, M Haubitz H. Purnhagen

Comparison of Two Educational Interventions on Pediatric Resident Auscultation Skills
C. Becket Mahnke, Andrew Nowalk, Dena Hofkosh, James R. Zuberbuhler, Yuk M. Law,
PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 5 May 2004, pp. 1331-1335

Teaching Cardiac Auscultation to the Trainees in Internal Medicine,
B Favrat , A Pécoud and A Jaussi, BMC Medical Education, 2004, 4:5,

Pulmonary Auscultatory Skills During Training in Internal Medicine and Family Practice
SALVATORE MANGIONE and LINDA Z. NIEMAN, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., Volume 159, Number 4, April 1999, 1119-1124

The Teaching of Chest Auscultation During Primary Care Training: Has Anything Changed in the 1990s? Salvatore Mangione, F. Daniel Duffy, Chest. 2003;124:1430-1436

The Teaching and Practice of Cardiac Auscultation during Internal Medicine and Cardiology Training:
A Nationwide Survey,
Salvatore Mangione, Linda Z. Nieman, Edward Gracely,  Donald Kaye

Cardiac Auscultation - A Glorious Past—But Does It Have a Future?
Morton E. Tavel, Circulation. 1996;93:1250-1253

Peter T. Kuo,Truman G. Schnabel, Jr., William S. Blakemore,Arthur F. Whereat,
J Clin Invest. 1957 July; 36(7): 1035–1042.

F Van de Werf, J Minten, P Carmeliet, H De Geest, and H Kesteloot,
J Clin Invest. 1984 May; 73(5): 1400–1407.

Conditions Leading to Pediatric Cardiology Consultation in a Tertiary Academic Hospital
Robert L. Geggel,
PEDIATRICS Vol. 114 No. 4 October 2004, pp. e409-e417

Recognizing Normal Heart Murmurs: A Logic-based Mnemonic, Samuel O. Sapin
PEDIATRICS Vol. 99 No. 4 April 1997, pp. 616-618

A decision tree – based method for the differential diagnosis of Aortic Stenosis from Mitral
Regurgitation using heart sounds
, Sotiris A Pavlopoulos,Antonis CH Stasis, Euripides N Loukis
BioMedical Engineering OnLine 2004, 3:21  


Mastering Cardiac Murmurs-The Power of Repetition
Michael J. Barrett, Carolyn S. Lacey, Amy E. Sekara, Erica A. Linden, Edward J. Gracely
Chest. 2004;126:470-475

Cardiac auscultatory skills of internal medicine and family practice trainees. A comparison
of diagnostic proficiency, Mangione S, Nieman,
JAMA, 1997 Sep 3;278(9):717-22

Audibility of the fourth heart sound. Relationship to presence of disease and examiner experience
M. D. Jordan, C. R. Taylor, A. W. Nyhuis and M. E. Tavel , Arch. Int. Medicine,
Vol. 147 No. 4, April 1, 1987

Enhanced Auscultation with a new graphic display system, M. E. Tavel, D. D. Brown and D. Shander,
Arch of Int. medicine,
Vol. 154 No. 8, April 25, 1994

Gender and Heart Sounds in Decompensated Heart Failure, W. Frank Peacock, Sean P. Collins, Christopher J. Lindsell and Alan B. Storrow, Academic Emergency Medicine Volume 12, Number 5 suppl 1 55,  

Association Between Phonocardiographic Third and Fourth Heart Sounds and Objective Measures of Left Ventricular Function, Gregory M. Marcus, Ivor L. Gerber, Barry H. McKeown, Joshua C. Vessey,  Mark V. Jordan, MD; Michele Huddleston, Charles E. McCulloch, Elyse Foster,  Kanu Chatterjee,  Andrew D. Michaels, JAMA. 2005;293:2238-2244.

Audibility of Fourth Heart Sound  David H. Spodick, Chest. 1999;115:1218-1219

Combination of Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Automated Heart Sounds Improves Heart Failure Diagnostic Accuracy, Sean P. Collins, Christopher J. Lindsell, W. Frank Peacock, Virginia D. Hedger and Alan B. Storrow,
Academic Emergency Medicine Volume 12, Number 5 suppl 1 97,

Cardinal clinical signs in the differentiation of heart murmurs in children B. W. McCrindle, K. M. Shaffer, J. S. Kan, K. G. Zahka, S. A. Rowe and L. Kidd
Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Initial evaluation of heart murmurs: are laboratory tests necessary? JF Smythe, OH Teixeira, P Vlad, PP Demers and W Feldman, Volume 86, Issue 4, pp. 497-500, 10/01/1990

An Assessment of the Impact of Multimedia, Technology-Based Learning Tools on the Cardiac Auscultation Skills of Third-Year Medical Students
Dario M. Torre,  Kurt J. Pfeifer, Geoffrey C. Lamb,Matthew P. Walters, James L. Sebastian, Deborah E. Simpson

Cardiac Auscultation: An Art Based on Science: A Primer
Samuel G. McDowell,
Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center



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